If there is a publication that you cannot access, please feel free to directly email me for a copy or request a copy from my ResearchGate page. The most updated list of publications can be found on my CV.

2023 – in press

Yan, V. X. & Schuetze, B. A. (in press, accepted July 18, 2022). What is meant by “growth mindset”? Current theory, measurement practices, and empirical results leave much open to interpretation. Psychological Bulletin. Will be available at Preprint:

Schuetze, B. A., & Yan, V.X. (in press, accepted on March 8th, 2022). Assessing the stability and replicability of the associations between goal orientation and self-regulated learning strategies: A Pre-Registered Replication of Muis and Franco (2009).  Meta-Psychology.  

Schuetze, B. A., & Yan, V. X. (2023). Psychology faculty overestimate the magnitude of Cohen’s d effect sizes by half a standard deviation.  Collabra: Psychology, 9: 74020. (open-access)

Yan, V. X., Oyserman, D., Kiper, G., & Atari, M. (2023). Difficulty-as-improvement: The courage to keep going in the face of life’s difficulties. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin.

O’Donnell, S. C., Yan, V. X., Bi, C., & Oyserman, D. (2023). Is difficulty mostly about impossibility? What difficulty implies may be culturally variant. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 49, 309-328.

Kiper, G.,  Atari, M., Yan, V. X., & Oyserman, D. (2023). The upside: How people make sense of difficulty matters in a crisis. Self and Identity, 22, 19-41.

Yan, V.X., Carvalho, P. F., & Sana, F. (2023). How students’ decisions to space their practice are related to better learning. C. E. Overson, C. M. Hakala, L. L. Kordonowy, & V. A. Benassi (Eds.). In Their Own Words: What Scholars Want You to Know About Why and How to Apply the Science of Learning in Your Academic Setting (pp. 445-449)Society for the Teaching of Psychology. (open-access)

2020 – 2022

Rea, S. D., Wang, L., Muenks, K. M., & Yan, V. X. (2022). Students can (mostly) recognize effective learning, so why don’t they do it? Journal of Intelligence, 10: 127.  (open-access)

Muenks, K. & Yan, V. X. (2022). University STEM instructors with stronger failure-as-debilitating mindsets are perceived to engage in fewer mastery-oriented teaching practices by their students: An exploratory study. Social Psychology of Education, 25, 1205-1219.

Schuetze, B. A. & Yan, V. X. (2022). Optimal learning under time constraints: Empirical and simulated tradeoffs between depth and breadth of study. Cognitive Science, 46, Article e13136.

Sana, F. & Yan, V. X. (2022). Interleaving retrieval practice promotes science learning. Psychological Science, 33, 782-788.

Sana, F., Yan, V. X., & Carvalho, P. F. (2022). On rest-from-deliberate practice as a mechanism for the spacing effect: Commentary on Chen et al. (2021). Educational Psychology Review, 34, 1843-1850. 

D. H. Robinson, V. X. Yan, & J. A. Kim (Eds.). (2022). Monographs in the Psychology of Education: Learning Styles, Classroom Instruction, and Student Achievement. Springer.

Yan, V. X. & Fralick, C.M. (2022). Consequences of Endorsing the Individual Learning Styles Myth: Helpful, Harmful, or Harmless? In D. H. Robinson, V. X. Yan, & J. A. Kim (Eds.). Monographs in the Psychology of Education: Learning Styles, Classroom Instruction, and Student Achievement. Springer.

Yan, V. X. & Schuetze, B. A. (2022). Not just stimuli structure: Effects in category learning vary by task demands. Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition, 11, 218-228.

Muenks, K., Yan, V. X., & Telang, N. K. (2021). Who is part of the “mindset context”? The unique role of perceived professor and peer mindsets in undergraduate engineering students’ motivation and belonging. Frontiers in Education, 6:633570. (open-access)

Muenks, K., Yan, V. X.,  Woodward, N., & Frey, S. E. (2021). Elaborative learning practices are associated with perceived faculty growth mindset in science classrooms. Learning and Individual Differences, 92, Article 102088. 

Sana, F., Yan, V. X., Clark, C. M., Bjork, E. L., & Bjork, R. A. (2021). Improving conceptual learning via pretests. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 27, 228–236.   [PDF]

Yan, V. X. & Sana, F. (2021a). Does the interleaving effect extend to unrelated concepts? Learners’ beliefs versus empirical evidence. Journal of Educational Psychology, 113, 125-137. [PDF]

Yan, V. X. & Sana, F.  (2021b). The robustness of the interleaving effect. Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition, 10, 589-602.   

Yan, V. X. & Wang, L. (2021). What predicts quality of learning’ study efforts? Implicit beliefs and interest are related to mastery goals, but not to use of effective study strategies. Frontiers in Education, 6:643421. (open-access)

Carvalho, P. F., Sana, F., & Yan, V. X. (2020). Self-regulated spacing in a massive open online course is related to better learning outcomes. npj Science of Learning, 5:2.  

Yan, V. X., Eglington, L. G., & Garcia, M. A. (2020). Learning better, learning more: The benefits of expanded retrieval practice. Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition, 9, 204-214. [PDF]


Yan, V. X. & Sana, F. (2019). Testing the discriminative contrast hypothesis: Predictions fail for inductive learning of artists’ styles. Journal of Cognitive Education and Psychology, 18, 35-51.

Oyserman, D. & Yan. V. X. (2019). Making meaning: A culture-as-situated cognition approach to the consequences of cultural fluency and disfluency. In S. Kitayama and D. Cohen (Eds.), Handbook of Cultural Psychology. NY: Guilford Press. [PDF]

Yan, V. X., Guadagnoli, M., & Haycocks, N. (2019). Appropriate failure to create stress-resistant learning: Lessons from cognitive psychology. To appear in N. Hodges & M. Williams (Eds), Skill Acquisition in Sport: Research, Theory, and Practice (3rd ed). Routledge. [PDF]

Yan, V. X. & Wang, L. (2018). Memory in Educational Settings. In D. S. Dunn (Ed), Oxford Bibliographies. New York: Oxford University Press. [PDF]

Sana, F., Yan, V. X., Kim, J. A., Bjork, R. A., Bjork, E. L. (2018). Does working memory capacity moderate the interleaving effect? Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition, 7, 361-369. [PDF]

Yan, V. X. & Oyserman, D. (2018). The culture-identity-metacognition interface. J. Proust & M. Fortier (Eds). Metacognitive Diversity: An Interdisciplinary Approach. Oxford University Press. [PDF]

Yan, V. X., Soderstrom, N. C., Seneviratna, G. S., Bjork, E. L., & Bjork, R. A. (2017). How should exemplars be sequenced in inductive learning? Empirical evidence versus learners’ opinions. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 23, 403-416. [PDF]

Oyserman, D., Lewis, N. A., Yan, V. X., Fisher, O., O’Donnell, S. C., & Horowitz, E. (2017). An identity-based motivation framework for self-regulation. Psychological Inquiry, 28, 139-147 [PDF]

Sana, F., Yan, V. X., & Kim, J. A. (2017). Study sequence matters for the inductive learning of cognitive concepts. Journal of Educational Psychology, 109, 84-98. [PDF]


Yan, V. X., Clark, C. M., & Bjork, R. A. (2016). Memory and metamemory considerations in the instruction of human beings revisited: Implications for optimizing online learning. J. C. Horvath, J. Lodge, & J. A. C. Hattie (Eds). From the Laboratory to the Classroom: Translating the Learning Sciences for Teachers. [link] [PDF]

Yan, V. X., Bjork, E. L., & Bjork, R. A. (2016). On the difficulty of mending metacognitive illusions: A priori theories, fluency effects, and misattributions of the interleaving benefit. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 145, 918-933 [PDF]

Noh, S. M., Yan, V. X., Bjork, R. A., & Maddox, W. T. (2016). Optimal sequencing during category learning: Testing a dual-learning systems perspective. Cognition, 155, 23-29. [PDF]

Yan, V. X., Yu, Y., Garcia, M. A., & Bjork, R. A. (2014). Why does trying, and failing, to predict to-be-learned responses enhance later recall of those responses? Memory & Cognition, 42, 1373-1383 [PDF]

Yan, V. X., Thai, K. P., & Bjork, R. A. (2014). Habits and beliefs that guide self-regulated learning: Do they vary with mindsets? Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition, 3, 140-152 [PDF]

Bjork, R. A. & Yan, V. X. (2014). The increasing importance of learning how to learn. In McDaniel, M.A., Frey, R.F., Fitzpatrick, S.M., and Roediger, H.L., III (Eds). (2014). Integrating Cognitive Science with Innovative Teaching in STEM Disciplines. Saint Louis, Missouri: Washington University in St. Louis Libraries. [PDF]

Dissertation: Yan, V. (2014). Learning concepts and categories from examples: How learners’ beliefs match and mismatch the empirical evidence. (Order No. 3623080, University of California, Los Angeles). ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, 128. Retrieved from (1548302027). [PDF]

Noh, S. M., Yan, V. X., Vendetti, M. S., Castel, A. D., & Bjork, R. A. (2014). Multi-level induction of categories: Venomous snakes capture the level of induction and hijack the learning of lower levels. Psychological Science, 25, 1592-1599 [PDF]

Murayama, K., Sakaki, M., & Yan, V. X., Smith. G. (2014). Type-1 error inflation in the traditional by-participant analysis to metamemory accuracy: A generalized mixed-effects model perspective. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 40, 1287-1306 [PDF]

Cohen, M. S., Yan, V. X., Halamish, V., & Bjork, R. A. (2013). Do students think that difficult or valuable materials should be restudied sooner, rather than later? Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 39, 1682-96 [PDF]