I. Refereed Journal Articles/Book Chapters

- Note

(* indicates co-authors are current or former students)

1. Learning Analytics and Data Visualization

Using Data to Understand How to Better Design Adaptive Learning

Liu, M., Kang*, J., Zou*, W., Lee*, H., Pan*, Z, & Corliss, S. (2017). Using Data to Understand How to Better Design Adaptive Learning. The Technology, Knowledge and Learning journal, 1-28. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10758-017-9326-z

Using Gameplay Data to Examine Learning Behavior Patterns in a Serious Game

Kang*, J., Liu, M., Qu*, W. (2017). Using Gameplay Data to Examine Learning Behavior Patterns in a Serious Game. Computers in Human Behavior.

Tracking Students’ Activities in Serious Games

Kang*, J., Liu*, S., & Liu, M. (2017). Tracking Students’ Activities in Serious Games, In F. Q. Lai & J. D. Lehman (Eds.) Learning and Knowledge Analytics in Open Education (pp. 125-137). Switzerland: Springer International Publishing. Retrieved from http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-38956-1_10

Examining through visualization what tools learners access as they play a serious game for middle school science

Liu, M., Kang*, J., Lee*, J, Winzeler*, E., & Liu*, S. (2015). Examining through visualization what tools learners access as they play a serious game for middle school science. In C. S. Loh, Y. Sheng, & D. Ifenthaler (Eds.) Serious Games Analytics: Methodologies for Performance Measurement, Assessment, and Improvement (pp. 181-208), Switzerland: Springer, DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-05834-4.

2. Designing and Researching Immersive Learning Environments and Related Factors

Investigating The Effect of An Adaptive Learning Intervention on Students’ Learning

Liu, M., McKelroy*, Corliss*, S., & Carrigan, J. (accepted). Investigating The Effect of An Adaptive Learning Intervention on Students’ Learning. Educational Technology Research & Development (ETRD) journal.

Exploring 3D Immersive and Interactive Technology for Designing Educational Learning Experiences

Liu, M., Su, S. Liu*, S., Harron*, J., Fickert*, C., and Sherman, B. (2016). Exploring 3D Immersive and Interactive Technology for Designing Educational Learning Experiences, In F. M., Neto, R. de Souza, & A.S. Gome, (Eds.) Handbook of Research on 3-D Virtual Environments and Hypermedia for Ubiquitous Learning (pp. 243-261). Hershey, PA: IGI Global.

Making Learning Fun: An Investigation of Using a Ludic Simulation for Middle School Space Science

Liu, M., Horton*, L., Kang*, J., Kimmons*, R. and Lee*, J. (2016). Making Learning Fun: An Investigation of Using a Ludic Simulation for Middle School Space Science. In Dubbels (Ed.) Transforming Gaming and Computer Simulation Technologies across Industries (pp. 130-152), Hershey, PA: IGI Global.

Motivating Students to Learn Using A Game-Based Learning Approach

Liu, M. (2014). Motivating Students to Learn Using A Game-Based Learning Approach. Texas Education Review, 2(1), 112-128. Available online at www.txedrev.org

Designing Science Learning with Game-Based Approaches

Liu, M., Rosenblum*, J., Horton*, L., & Kang*, J. (2014). Designing Science Learning with Game-Based Approaches. Computers in the School, 31(1/2), 84-102. DOI:10.1080/07380569.2014.879776

Designing Technology-Enriched Cognitive Tools To Support Young Learners’ Problem Solving

Liu, M., Yuen*, T. T. Horton*, L., Lee*, J., Toprac*, P. and Bogard*. T. (2013). Designing Technology-Enriched Cognitive Tools To Support Young Learners’ Problem Solving. The International Journal of Cognitive Technology. 18(1). 14-21.

Using a Ludic Simulation to Make Learning of Middle School Space Science Fun

Liu, M., Horton*, L., Kang*, J., Kimmons*, R. and Lee*, J. (2013). Using a Ludic Simulation to Make Learning of Middle School Space Science Fun. The International Journal of Gaming and Computer-Mediated Simulations, 5(1). 66-86. DOI: 10.4018/jgcms.2013010105

Examining the Design of Media Rich Cognitive Tools as Scaffolds in a Multimedia Problem-Based Learning Environment

Liu, M., Horton*, L., Toprac*, P. & Yuen*. T. (2011). Examining the Design of Media Rich Cognitive Tools as Scaffolds in a Multimedia Problem-Based Learning Environment, In M. Orey, S. A. Jones, & R. M. Branch (Eds.), Educational Media and Technology Yearbook (EMTY), 36. DOI 10.1007/978-1-4614-1305-9_10. New York: Springer

The impact of animation interactivity on novices’ learning of introductory Statistics

Wang*, P. Y, Vaughn, B. K., & Liu, M. (2011) The impact of animation interactivity on novices’ learning of introductory Statistics, Computers & Education56(1), 300-311.

A cognitive model of how interactive multimedia authoring facilitates conceptual understanding of object-oriented programming in novices

Yuen*, T., & Liu, M. (2010). A cognitive model of how interactive multimedia authoring facilitates conceptual understanding of object-oriented programming in novices. Journal of Interactive Learning Research, 22(3), 329-356.

What factors make a multimedia learning environment engaging: A case study

Liu, M., Toprac*, P., & Yuen*, T(2009). What factors make a multimedia learning environment engaging: A case study. In R. Zheng, (Ed.) Cognitive Effects of Multimedia Learning (pp. 173-192)Hershey, PA: Idea Group Inc.

Students’ problem-solving as mediated by their cognitive tool use: A study of tool use patterns

Liu, M., Horton*, L., Corliss*, S. B., Svinicki, M. D., Bogard*, T., Kim*, J., & Chang*, M. (2009). Students’ problem-solving as mediated by their cognitive tool use: A study of tool use patterns, Journal of Educational Computing Research, 40(1), 111-139.

Examining the interplay between middle school students’ achievement goals and self-efficacy in a technology-enhanced learning environment

Hsieh*, P. H., Cho*. Y., Liu, M., & Schallert, D. L. (2008). Examining the interplay between middle school students’ achievement goals and self-efficacy in a technology-enhanced learning environment. American Secondary Education Journal36(3), 33-50.

An Exploration of Mashups and Their Potential Educational Uses

Liu, M., Horton*, L., Olmanson*, J. & Wang*, P. Y. (2008). An Exploration of Mashups and Their Potential Educational Uses. Computers in the School, 25(3/4), 243-258.

Students’ Attitudes toward online interaction

Hao*, Y. W. & Liu, M. (2006). Students’ Attitudes toward online interaction. Academic Exchange Quarterly.10(4), 74-79.

Cognitive tools, individual differences, and group processing as mediating factors in a hypermedia environment

Bera*, S. & Liu, M. (2006). Cognitive tools, individual differences, and group processing as mediating factors in a hypermedia environment. Computers in Human Behavior, 22(2). 295-319.

An analysis of cognitive tool use patterns in a hypermedia learning environment

Liu, M, & Bera*, S. (2005). An analysis of cognitive tool use patterns in a hypermedia learning environment. Educational Technology Research and Development, 53(1), 5-21.

The effect of a hypermedia learning environment on middle school students’ motivation, attitude, and science knowledge.

Liu, M (2005). The effect of a hypermedia learning environment on middle school students’ motivation, attitude, and science knowledge. Computers in the Schools, 22(3/4), 159-171.

Examining the performance and attitudes of sixth graders during their use of a problem-based hypermedia learning environment.

Liu, M. (2004). Examining the performance and attitudes of sixth graders during their use of a problem-based hypermedia learning environment. Computers in Human Behavior. 20 (3), 357-379.

Understanding the connection between cognitive tool use and cognitive processes as used by sixth graders in a problem-based hypermedia learning environment.

Liu, M., Bera*, S., Corliss*, S., Svinicki, M., & Beth*, A. (2004). Understanding the connection between cognitive tool use and cognitive processes as used by sixth graders in a problem-based hypermedia learning environment. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 31(3), 309-334.

Teachers’ beliefs about issues in the implementation of a student-centered learning environment

Pedersen*, S. & Liu, M. (2003). Teachers’ beliefs about issues in the implementation of a student-centered learning environment. Educational Technology Research and Development. 51(2), 57-76.

Enhancing learners’ cognitive skills through multimedia design.

Liu, M. (2003). Enhancing learners’ cognitive skills through multimedia design. Interactive Learning Environments. 11(1), 23-39.

The effects of modeling expert cognitive strategies during problem-based learning.

Pedersen*, S. & Liu, M. (2002). The effects of modeling expert cognitive strategies during problem-based learning. Journal of Educational Computing Research. 26(4), 353-380.

The transfer of problem-solving skills from a problem-based learning environment: the effect of modeling an expert’s cognitive processes

Pedersen*, S. & Liu, M. (2002). The transfer of problem-solving skills from a problem-based learning environment: the effect of modeling an expert’s cognitive processes. Journal of Research on Technology in Education. 35(2), 303-320.

Alien Rescue: A problem-based hypermedia learning environment for middle school science

Liu, M, Williams*, D., & Pedersen*, S. (2002). Alien Rescue: A problem-based hypermedia learning environment for middle school science. Journal of Educational Technology Systems, 30(3), 255-270.

Middle school students as multimedia designers: A project-based learning approach.

Liu, M. & Y. P. Hsiao*. (2002). Middle school students as multimedia designers: A project-based learning approach. Journal of Interactive Learning Research, 13(4), 311-337.

Exploring the use of multimedia examinations in teaching and learning for undergraduate education: results from fielding testing

Liu, M., Papathanasiou*, E., & Hao*, Y. (2001). Exploring the use of multimedia examinations in teaching and learning for undergraduate education: results from fielding testing. Computers in Human Behavior. 17(3), 225-248.

A Study of Engaging High School Students as Multimedia Designers in Cognitive Apprenticeship-Style Learning Environment

Liu, M. (1998). A Study of Engaging High School Students as Multimedia Designers in Cognitive Apprenticeship-Style Learning Environment. Computers in Human Behavior. 14 (3), 387-415.

The effect of hypermedia authoring on elementary school students’ creative thinking skills

Liu, M. (1998). The effect of hypermedia authoring on elementary school students’ creative thinking skills. Journal of Educational Computing Research. 19(1), 27-51.

An evaluation of the use of problem-based learning software by middle school students

Williams*, D, Pedersen*, S., & Liu, M. (1998). An evaluation of the use of problem-based learning software by middle school students. Journal for Universal Computer Science4(4), 466-483.

The effect of being hypermedia designers on elementary school students’ learning of design knowledge

Liu, M, & Pedersen*, S. (1998). The effect of being hypermedia designers on elementary school students’ learning of design knowledge. Journal of Interactive Learning Research. 9(2), 155-182.

Introducing interactive multimedia young children: A case study of how two-year-olds interact with the technology

Jones*, M. & Liu, M. (1997). Introducing interactive multimedia young children: A case study of how two-year-olds interact with the technology. Journal of Computing in Childhood Education, 8(4), 313-343.

The effects of HyperCard programming on teacher education students’ problem-solving ability and computer anxiety

Liu, M. (1997). The effects of HyperCard programming on teacher education students’ problem-solving ability and computer anxiety. Journal of Research on Computing in Education,29(3), 248-262.

The effect of a “learner as multimedia designer” environment on at-risk high school students’ motivation and learning of design knowledge

Liu, M. & Rutledge*, K. (1997). The effect of a “learner as multimedia designer” environment on at-risk high school students’ motivation and learning of design knowledge. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 16(2), 145-177.

Interactive multimedia in an informal setting: The use of a multimedia information kiosk by university students

Liu, M. (1997/1998). Interactive multimedia in an informal setting: The use of a multimedia information kiosk by university students. Journal of Educational Technology Systems, 26(1), 35-53.

The effect of students’ computer-based prior experiences and instructional exposures on the application of hypermedia-related mental models

Reed, W. M., Ayersman, D. J., & Liu, M. (1996). The effect of students’ computer-based prior experiences and instructional exposures on the application of hypermedia-related mental models. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 14(2), 175-197.

An exploratory study of how pre-kindergarten children use the interactive multimedia technology: Implications for multimedia software design

Liu, M. (1996). An exploratory study of how pre-kindergarten children use the interactive multimedia technology: Implications for multimedia software design. Journal of Computing in Childhood Education, 7 (1/2), 71-92.

The effect of hypermedia instruction on stages of concern of students with varying authoring language and hypermedia prior experience

Reed, W. M., Ayersman, D. J., & Liu, M. (1995). The effect of hypermedia instruction on stages of concern of students with varying authoring language and hypermedia prior experience. Journal of Research on Computing in Education27(3), 297-317.

The effects of three different hypermedia courses on students’ attitudes

Reed, W. M., Ayersman, D. J., & Liu, M. (1995). The effects of three different hypermedia courses on students’ attitudes. Computers in Human Behavior, 11(3/4), 495-510.

Perceptions of a hypermedia environment

Liu, M., Ayersman, D. J., & Reed, W. M. (1995). Perceptions of a hypermedia environment. Computers in Human Behavior, 11(3/4), 411-428.

The effect of Hypermedia-assisted-instruction on second language learning

Liu, M. & Reed, W. M. (1995). The effect of Hypermedia-assisted-instruction on second language learning. Journal of Educational Computing Research.12(2), 159-175.

Contextual enrichment through hypermedia technology: Implications for second language learning

Liu, M. (1995). Contextual enrichment through hypermedia technology: Implications for second language learning. Computers in Human Behavior11(3/4), 439-450.

The comparative effects of BASIC programming versus HyperCard programming on problem-solving, computer anxiety and performance

Reed, W. M. & Liu, M. (1994). The comparative effects of BASIC programming versus HyperCard programming on problem-solving, computer anxiety and performance. Computers in the Schools, 10(1/2), 27-46.

Hypermedia-assisted-instruction and second language learning: A semantic-network-based approach

Liu, M. (1994). Hypermedia-assisted-instruction and second language learning: A semantic-network-based approach. Computers in the Schools, 10(3/4), 293-312

The relationship between the learning strategies and learning styles in a Hypermedia environment

Liu, M. & Reed, W. M. (1994). The relationship between the learning strategies and learning styles in a Hypermedia environment. Computers in Human Behavior, 10 (4), 419-434.

Teacher education students and computers: Gender, major, use, occurrence, and anxiety

Liu, M., Reed, W. M., & Phillips, P. D. (1992). Teacher education students and computers: Gender, major, use, occurrence, and anxiety. Journal of Research on Computing in Education24(4), 457-467.

3. Examining Mobile Technology for Teaching and Learning

Examining teachers’ use of iPads: Comfort level, perception, and use

Liu, M., Navarrete*, C., Scordino*, R., Kang*, J. Ko*, Y. J., and Lim*, M. H. (2016). Examining teachers’ use of iPads: Comfort level, perception, and use. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 48(3), 159-180.

A Multiple-Case Study Examining Teachers’ Use of iPod Touches in Their Pedagogical Practices for English Language Learners

Liu, M., Navarrete*, C. C., Maradiegue*, E., and Wivagg*, J. (2014). A Multiple-Case Study Examining Teachers’ Use of iPod Touches in Their Pedagogical Practices for English Language Learners, In D. McConatha, C. Penny, J. Schugar & D. L. Bolton (Eds.) Mobile Pedagogy and Perspectives on Teaching and Learning (pp. 165-185), IGI-Global Publishing. DOI: 10.4018/978-1-4666-4333-8.ch010

A Look at Research on Mobile Learning in K-12 Education From 2007 to Present

Liu, M., Scordino*, R., Geurtz*, R, Navarrete*, C., Ko*, Y. J., and Lim*, M. H. (2014). A Look at Research on Mobile Learning in K-12 Education From 2007 to PresentJournal of Research on Technology in Education, 46(4), 325-372. DOI:10.1080/15391523.2014.925681

Affordances and Challenges of Using iPods to Support Learning by English Language Learners at the Middle School Level

Liu, M., Wivagg*, J. Maradiegue*, E., and Navarrete*, C. C. (2013). Affordances and Challenges of Using iPods to Support Learning by English Language Learners at the Middle School Level, In P. M. Pumilia-Gnarini, E. Favaron, E. Pacetti, J. Bishop & L. Guerra (Eds.), Handbook of Research on Didactic Strategies and Technologies for Education: Incorporating Advancements (pp. 275-288), IGI-Global. DOI: 10.4018/978-1-4666-2122-0.ch023.

Research on Mobile Learning in Adult Education

Liu, M., Geurtz*, R, Karam*, A., Navarrete*, C. and Scordino*, R. (2013). Research on Mobile Learning in Adult Education. In W. Kinuthia & S. Marshall (Eds.) On the Move: Mobile Learning for Development, Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing.

4. Understanding MOOCs as An Emerging Online Learning Tool

Investigating Students’ Interactions with Discussion Forums, Facebook, and Twitter in a MOOC and Their Perceptions

Liu, M., Kang*, J., McKelroy*, E., Harron*, J., and Liu*, S. (2016). Investigating Students’ Interactions with Discussion Forums, Facebook, and Twitter in a MOOC and Their Perceptions. In Khan, (Ed.) Revolutionizing Modern Education through Meaningful E-Learning Implementation (pp. 118-41), Hershey, PA: IGI Global.

Examining the use of Facebook and Twitter as an additional social space in a MOOC

Liu, M., McKelroy*, E., Kang*, J. Harron*, J., & Liu*, S. (2016). Examining the use of Facebook and Twitter as an additional social space in a MOOC. The American Journal of Distance Education, 30((1), 14-26. DOI: 10.1080/08923647.2016.1120584

Understanding MOOCs as an Emerging Online Learning Tool: Perspectives From the Students

Liu, M., Kang*, J., Cao*, M. W, Lim*, M. H., Ko*, Y. J., Myers*, R., & Schmitz Weiss, A. S. (2014). Understanding MOOCs as an Emerging Online Learning Tool: Perspectives From the Students. The American Journal of Distance Education. 28(3). 147-159. DOI: 10.1080/08923647.2014.926145

5. Web 2.0 Second Language Learning & Instructional Design

A Study of the Use of Social Network Sites for Language Learning By University ESL Students

Liu, M., Evans*, M., Horwitz, E., Lee*, S. McCrory*, M., J. Park*, and Parrish* C. (2013). A Study of the Use of Social Network Sites for Language Learning By University ESL Students. In M. Lamy & K. Zourou (Eds.) Social networking for language education (pp. 137-157), NY, NY: Palgrave Macmillan.

Web 2.0 and Its Use in Higher Education from 2007-2009: A Review of Literature

Liu, M., Kalk*, D., Kinney*, L., & Orr*, G. (2012). Web 2.0 and Its Use in Higher Education from 2007-2009: A Review of Literature. International Journal on E-Learning (IJEL), 11(2), 153-179.

Learning a Language with Web 2.0: Exploring the Use of Social Networking Features of Foreign Language Learning Web sites

Stevenson*, M. P. & Liu, M. (2010). Learning a Language with Web 2.0: Exploring the Use of Social Networking Features of Foreign Language Learning Web sites. CALICO Journal, 27(2), 233-259.

The importance of Emotional Usability

Shih*, Y. H. & Liu, M. (2008). The importance of Emotional Usability. Journal of Educational Technology System36(2), 203-218.

Designing Web sites for ESL learners: A usability testing study

Liu, M., Traphagan*, T., Huh*, J., Koh*, Y. I., & Choi*, G., & McGregor*, A. (2008). Designing Web sites for ESL learners: A usability testing study. CALICO Journal, 25(2), 207-240.

Strategies & heuristics for novice instructional designers as they work with faculty content experts in a university setting

Liu, M., Kishi, C., & Rhoads, S(2007). Strategies & heuristics for novice instructional designers as they work with faculty content experts in a university settingIn M. Keppell, (Ed.) Instructional Design: Case Studies in Communities of Practice (pp.36-67)Hershey, PA: Idea Group Inc.

A look at the research on computer-based technology use in second language learning: review of literature from 1990-2000

Liu, M., Moore, Z., Graham*, L., & Lee*. S. (2002). A look at the research on computer-based technology use in second language learning: review of literature from 1990-2000. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 34(3), 250-273.

Challenges of being an instructional designer for new media development: A view from the practitioners

Liu, M., Gibby*, S., Quiros*, O., & Demps*, E. (2002). Challenges of being an instructional designer for new media development: A view from the practitioners. Journal of Educational Hypermedia and Multimedia, 11(3), 195-219.

A study of the multimedia design and production process by the practitioners

Liu, M., Jones*, C., & Hemstreet*, S. (1998). A study of the multimedia design and production process by the practitioners. Journal of Research on Computing in Education. 30(3), 254-280.

A study of project management techniques for developing interactive multimedia programs: A practitioner’s perspective

McDaniel, K. & Liu, M. (1996). A study of project management techniques for developing interactive multimedia programs: A practitioner’s perspective. Journal of Research on Computing in Education29(1), 29-48

II. Edited Journal Special Issue

Hypermedia: Theory, Research and Application

Reed, W. M., Ayersman, D., & Liu, Min. (Eds.) (1995). Hypermedia: Theory, Research and Application. [Special issue]. Computers in Human Behavior, 11(3/4).

III. Edited Book

Multimedia and Megachange: New Roles for Educational Computing

Reed, W. Michael, Burton, John K. & Liu, Min. (Eds.). (1994).Multimedia and Megachange: New Roles for Educational Computing, New York: Haworth Press.