The Human Performance Laboratory investigates the physiological factors that regulate exercise performance. Some of the HPL’s research continues to integrate the cardiovascular and metabolic factors in muscle that determine the level of stress and fatigue that athletes experience during exercise. However, much current research is focused on the effects of physical inactivity (e.g.; prolonged sitting) on lipid metabolism (i.e.; post-prandial blood triglyceride and fat oxidation). Our November 2016 publication (Kim et al.) coined the term ‘exercise resistance’ to describe the phenomenon that occurs when people who sit for 14 h/day and then exercise for 1 h, do not derive the full health benefits of that exercise (e.g.; improved lipid metabolism). Several studies in the HPL are aimed at discovering how to counteract the harmful effects of prolonged sitting. Another area of research in the HPL relates to the neuromuscular factors that determine maximal power as measured accurately during a four-second cycling test.